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Flavor-Base - 10th Ed. is here


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Welcome to the Leffingwell & Associates Web site. We are dedicated to serving the Perfume, flavor, food and beverage community with information, products and services.

This Web site offers information on interesting subjects related to Perfume and Flavor Chemistry...and many links for those interested in flavors, fragrance, olfaction, herbs and spices, botanical medicine, as well as organoleptic properties and molecular visualization of selected flavor & fragrance materials.

Flavor-Base - 10th Edition - NEW

T. Hasegawa 1st Qtr 2015-2016 Sales Results - February 5, 2016 - Sales for the 1st Qtr 2015-2016 period ending Dec. 31, 2015 were up 7.5% to ¥ 11,209 million compared to ¥ 10,430 in the prior year. Net income for the period increased 29.2% to ¥ 713 million.

Sensient F&F Full Year 2015 Sales - Milwaukee, Feb. 04, 2016 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported revenue of $819.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, a decrease of 3.8% from $851.5 million reported in 2014. Operating income increased approximately 1%, to $121.9 million in 2015, from $120.9 million in 2014. The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported fourth quarter revenue of $201.0 million, a decrease of 1% from $203.1 million reported in last year’s fourth quarter. Operating income increased 6.3% to $27.5 million compared to $25.9 million in the fourth quarter of 2014.

Givaudan Full Year 2015 Sales - Geneva, 2 February 2016 - Givaudan Group full year sales were CHF 4,396 million, an increase of 2.7% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 0.2% in Swiss francs when compared to 2014. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 2,096 million, an increase of 1.9% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 0.6% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 2,300 million, an increase of 3.5% on a like-for-like basis and 0.2% in Swiss francs. Net income increased to CHF 635 million in 2015 from CHF 563 million in 2014, an increase of 12.7%. This results in a net profit margin of 14.4%, versus 12.8% in 2014.

Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients (WFSI) Full Year 2015 Sales - Chicago, February 2, 2016 - WFSI full year revenues were $2,047 million compared to $1,368 million in 2014. A significant part of the sales increase was due to non-flavor ingredients sales after ADM's acquisition and the Flavor sales portion is not reported.

Huaboa Intl. Half Year 2015-2016 Sales - November 27, 2015 - Huaboa International net sales for the half year ending September 30, 2015 were 1,693.0 million Hong Kong dollars (-21.3%) of which 82.3% was from the flavors & fragrance related segments. The F&F segments sales decrease was -14.3% to 1,394.2 million HKD.

The Inexorable Rise Of Synthetic Flavor: A Pictorial History – November 23, 2015 - Nadia Berenstein gives us the story - From vanilla to GMOs, how science shaped the taste of the modern world. Great historical pictures.

Frutarom 9 Month 2015 Sales - Haifa, Israel – November 19, 2015 - Frutarom Industries Ltd. reports, attaining in the first nine months of 2015, record levels in sales reaching US$ 647.2 million (+4.8%), and in net income reaching US$ 72.6 million. Frutarom's sales in the third quarter of 2015 rose by 11.3% to reach a quarterly record of US$ 234.5 million compared with US$ 210.8 million in the parallel quarter, reflecting constant-currency growth on a pro-forma basis4 of 4.5% from the parallel period.

Robertet 9 Month 2015 Sales - November 16, 2015 - Robertet has reported 9 month sales of 326.4 million euros (+10.9%). Flavor sales increased 8.9% to 123.6 million euros. Fragrance sales were 118.1 million euros (+11.5%). Raw materials increased 12.7% to 82.4 million euros. Other income was 2.3 million euros.

Takasago Half Year 2015-2016 Sales - November 11, 2015 - Takasago half year sales for the period ending September 30, 2015 were ¥ 72,123 million, an increase of 8.8% over the prior year period. Operating income increased 67.1% to ¥ 4,529 million. Net income increased to ¥ 4,057 million (+202%)

Symrise 9 Month 2015 Sales – November 11, 2015 - For the first nine months of 2015, Symrise outperformed the overall market and significantly boosted its earnings. The Group benefited from strong demand in both business segments and in all regions. Symrise increased its sales by 29% to 1,977.0 million (9M 2014: 1,530.0 million) and its earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) by 30% to 448.5 million (9M 2014 normalized: 343.8 million). Sales in the Scent & Care segment rose by 10% to 812.3 million (9M 2014: 736.8 million). The Flavor & Nutrition segment increased sales by 47% to 1,164.7 million (9M 2014: 793.2 million) in the first nine months of the year. At local currency, this amounts to a 41% gain. Even without the Diana Group, the segment achieved strong organic growth and increased sales by 13% (9% in local currency).

T. Hasegawa Full Year 2014-2015 Sales Results - November 11, 2015 - for the 12 months ending September 30, 2015, T. Hasegawa's consolidated net sales were up 5.1% to ¥ 47,228 million compared to ¥ 44,917 in the prior year. Net income for the period declined 6.0% to ¥ 3,043 million.

IFF 9 Month 2015 Sales - New York - November 9, 2015 - IFF's nine month 2015 sales were $2,307.5 million (-1.1%). 3d Qtr sales also declined 1.1% to $765.1 million. Nine month net income increased 4.8% to $340.1 million. Nine month Flavor sales increased by 0.7% to $1,108.7 million while nine month fragrance sales declined 2.7% to $1,198.9 million.

Firmenich supports world-class research as it celebrates its 120th anniversary - Geneva, Switzerland, November 2nd 2015 – Marking its 120th Anniversary, Firmenich proudly announces the creation of two “Next Generation” Firmenich programs to advance basic Research in the areas of Neurosciences and Sustainability. Firmenich established these endowed initiatives at leading universities in its two chosen fields, Stanford University in the United States and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland.

Sensient F&F 9 Month 2015 Sales - Milwaukee, Oct. 21, 2015 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported 9 month sales revenues of $618.0 million vs. $648.5 million in 2014 (-4.7%). Operating income for Flavors & Fragrances declined 0.7% to $94.4 million. 3rd Qtr F&F sales declined 4.3% to $207.4 million. F&F 3rd Qtr operating income was $31.4 million (+2.5%).

Givaudan 9 Month 2015 Sales - Geneva, 9 October 2015 - In the first nine months of 2015 Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 3,296 million, an increase of 2.0% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 0.5% in Swiss francs compared to the previous year. Including Soliance and the recently acquired company Induchem, the growth was 1.8% in local currencies. Induchem contributed CHF 2 million following the acquisition on 31 August 2015. 3rd Qtr Group sales were CHF 1,112 million (-0.9%) and +3.3% on a like-for-like basis. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 1,563 million for the first nine months of 2015, an increase of 0.7% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 1.5% in Swiss francs. 3rd Qtr Fragrance sales were CHF 540 million (-2.2%) and +2.0% on a like-for-like basis. Flavour Division sales were CHF 1,733 million during the first nine months of 2015, an increase of 3.3% on a like-for-like basis and +0.4% in Swiss francs. 3rd Qtr Flavour sales were CHF 572 million (+0.4%) and +4.6% on a like-for-like basis.

Firmenich 2014-2015 Sales - Oct. 7, 2015 - For the financial year ended June 30, 2015, Firmenich posted sales of ~CHF 3,008 million, an increase of 1.9% in Swiss francs and 3% in local currencies. For the first time this year, Firmenich issued an integrated report, sharing both its Business and Sustainability Performance, as they go hand in hand, at the core of the Group’s vision and strategy.

Perilla aldehyde (p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al) is deleted as an approved flavorant by the EU - October 1, 2015 - On July 23, 2015 EFSA reported that the flavouring substance p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al (Perilla aldehyde) has been shown to be genotoxic (damaging to DNA) in a new study on animals, evaluated by EFSA’s experts. On October 1, 2015 - in COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) 2015/1760 - p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al was removed from the list of approved flavorants.

Eugene S. Buday - September 28, 2015 - Gene Buday, founder of GSB & Associates, Flavor Creators in Kennesaw, Georgia has passed away at age 82. His career, which began in the 1950s, included roles with Felton, Polak’s Frutal Works (PFW), Hercules, Synfleur, Fries and Fries, Aromatics International and AFF. Buday established GSB & Associates, Inc, in 1984. He was a certified flavor chemist and past president of the Society of Flavor Chemists. Buday remained active in the industry until his passing. Mr. Buday is survived by his wife, Anne Buday, son, Steven Buday, daughter, Corinne Baskin, and his son in law, Michael Baskin. Buday's services will be private. The family asks that any contributions be sent to Wellstar Community Hospice at Kennesaw Mountain, 200 South Park Place, Suite 202, Atlanta, GA 30339.

Symrise to Acquire Pinova Holdings – September 21, 2015 - Symrise is acquiring Pinova Holdings for US$ 397 million. Subject to conditions to be met within 12 months, the seller will receive a premium of US$ 20 million. Dr. Heinz-Jürgen Bertram, CEO of Symrise AG, said: "With the acquisition of Pinova Holdings, which owns the operating companies Pinova and Renessenz, we are taking a big step in the growth of our Aroma Molecules business. In view of the increasing importance of natural and renewable raw materials for the fragrance industry, the product range ideally complements our current portfolio. Pinova Holdings has recognized expertise and is very well positioned in that area. In addition, Pinova Holdings will broaden our portfolio of ingredients in Oral Care as well as some attractive new market segments. At the same time, the company will benefit from our global presence and sales structure as well as our R&D expertise." The product portfolio of Pinova Holdings comprises numerous specialized products in three business segments. In the Fragrance Ingredients segment the company is a leading supplier of fragrances derived from natural and renewable raw materials, including products based on wood, orange oils and paper production by-products. Pinova Holdings will thus complement the existing portfolio of Symrise. As a result, the Group will have access to major and high-volume platforms for fragrance ingredients. In the Sensory Ingredients segment, Pinova Holdings main focus is on cooling substances used in combination with menthol-based products to enhance the cooling effect. They are used in the manufacturing of oral care products, chewing gum and beverages, among other areas. Symrise is one of the global leaders in the production of synthetic L-menthol, and with this acquisition is substantially strengthening its competitiveness in this particular field. Pinova Holdings has close customer relationships with leading global companies in the consumer goods industry, including – similar to Symrise – many long-term strategic partnerships. The company has manufacturing operations at three locations: Brunswick and Colonel’s Island, Georgia, USA, and in Jacksonville, Florida, USA. In the fiscal year 2014, Pinova Holdings recorded sales of US$ 287 million with a workforce of about 400 employees. In the same period, the adjusted EBITDA amounted to US$ 37.4 million. Subject to regulatory approval, the deal is expected to close at the beginning of 2016. Symrise plans to move forward quickly with the integration of Pinova Holdings, expecting to achieve annually synergy effects worth 20 million by 2020.

Dan Stebbins joins the Board of Directors of Senomyx - San Diego, Sept. 11, 2015 - "Dan Stebbins has very strong leadership experience in the flavor industry and with industry association boards," said Kent Snyder, Chairman of the Board of Senomyx. "Senomyx will benefit from his commercial insights and expertise as the company continues to advance the sale of its unique flavor ingredients to food, beverage and ingredient supply companies." Mr. Stebbins is currently the Non-Executive Chairman of Agilex Fragrances. He spent the majority of his career with Dragoco, including serving as President and CEO of Dragoco, North America, President of Dragoco Flavor Division, Worldwide, and a member of the Executive Board of Dragoco, GmbH. Mr. Stebbins was part of the executive team that merged Dragoco with Haarmann & Reimer (H&R), forming Symrise AG, the 4th largest flavor and fragrance company in the world. After such merger, Mr. Stebbins served as the President of the Symrise AG, Worldwide Flavor Division. Mr. Stebbins has been honored with numerous awards including the Erich Bruell award from the FMA and the International Fragrance Research Association (IFRA), as well as the Dr. Richard Hall award from FEMA for outstanding service to the fragrance and flavor industry.

Givaudan Acquires Induchem - Geneva, 31 August 2015 - Givaudan today announced that it has acquired 100% of the shares of Induchem Holding AG and its subsidiaries. Induchem’s portfolio of products is based on a wide range of innovative and highly functional active ingredients with proven efficacy results, as well as research expertise in fields such as biocatalysis, metagenomics, and biochemical synthesis. Induchem primarily operates from Volketswil, Switzerland, Toulouse, France and New York, USA, and employs 65 people. Gilles Andrier, CEO of Givaudan, said: “Induchem is a second key step, after the acquisition of Soliance, towards our ambition to make Givaudan a significant player in the Active Cosmetic Business. Induchem brings strong complementary capabilities to Givaudan and will greatly contribute in achieving our 2020 ambition to become a key player in this fast growing business. While terms of the deal have not been disclosed, Induchem’s business would have represented approximately CHF 25 million of incremental sales to Givaudan’s results in 2014 on a proforma basis. Givaudan plans to fund the transaction from existing resources.

IFF 1st Half 2015 Sales - New York - August 10, 2015 - IFF's sales for the first 6 months of 2015 declined 1% to $1,542.4 million. 2d Qtr sales declined 2.6% to $767.5 million. Fragrance unit sales in the 1st Half were $792.9 million (-2.9%) while 2d Qtr fragrance sales declined 4.3% to $395.1 million. 1st half Flavor unit sales were $749.6 million (+1%) while 2d Qtr flavor sales declined 1% to $372.5 million. On a currency neutral basis 1st half total sales increased 6%.

Takasago 1st Qtr 2015-2016 Sales - August 8, 2015 - 1st Qtr Takasago sales for the period ending June 30, 2015 increased 8.6% to ¥ 36,314 million from ¥ 33,433 million in the prior year period. 1st Qtr net income increased 183.2% to ¥ 2,619 million.

T. Hasegawa 9 Month 2014-2015 Sales Results - August 7, 2015 - for the 9 months ending June 30, 2015, T. Hasegawa reported sales of ¥ 34,402 million compared to ¥ 33,643 million in the prior year (+2.3%). Nine month net income declined 14.1% to ¥ 2,248 million.

Symrise 1st Half 2015 Sales – August 6, 2015 - For the first half of the year, Symrise increased its sales by 41% to 1,330.8 million (H1 2014: 941.8 million). At local currency, this represents a sales growth of 32%. Along with 268.0 million in sales from the activities of Diana, which were acquired last year, the Company benefited above all from strong demand for natural flavors and cosmetic ingredients. Excluding the contributions from Diana, Symrise increased its sales by 13% (local currency: 6%) and thus once again significantly outperformed the global market for fragrances and flavors, which is estimated to be growing at a rate of 2-3 % per year. Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) were up by 44% to 300.3 million (H1 2014 normalized: 209.0 million). The Flavor & Nutrition segment increased sales by 75% (65% in local currency) to 784.3 million in the first half of the year (H1 2014: 449.3 million). Adjusted for consolidation effects from Diana, sales in the segment rose by 15% (9% in local currency). The strongest growth among regions was in Latin America, where sales rose by 155% in local currency. Sales in North America nearly doubled, with a 92% year-on-year gain. In the EAME and Asia/Pacific regions, Flavor & Nutrition achieved a sales growth of 60% and 35%, respectively. For the first half of the year, sales in the Scent & Care segment rose by 11% to 546.5 million (H1 2014: 492.5 million). At local currency, sales increased by 2%. The segment particularly benefited from strong demand for menthol and cosmetic ingredient applications.With an increase of 18 % at local currency, Scent & Care achieved its largest gains in Latin America. The Asia/Pacific and EAME regions posted sales in local currency of 2% and 1%, respectively. In North America, sales were down 5% compared to the strong first half of 2014.

Sensient F&F 1st Half 2015 Sales - Milwaukee, July 23, 2015 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported first half sales revenues of $410.6 million vs. $431.8 million in 2014 (-4.9%). Operating income for Flavors & Fragrances declined 2.2% to $63 million. 2d Qtr F&F sales declined 5.9% to $204.6 million. F&F 2d Qtr operating income was $32.5 million (-4.7%).

Flavouring substance considered a safety concern - 23 July 2015 - The flavouring substance p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al (Perilla aldehyde) has been shown to be genotoxic (damaging to DNA) in a new study on animals, evaluated by EFSA’s experts. Under the EU system devised to evaluate flavourings, Perilla aldehyde is also a proxy for evaluating nine other structurally similar chemicals known collectively as “alicyclic aldehydes”. EFSA’s experts, therefore, indicate there is also a potential safety concern for these other substances unless further evidence proves otherwise. EU risk managers will consider how to best use EFSA’s scientific opinion in weighing up possible follow-up measures.

Givaudan 1st Half 2015 Sales - Geneva, 17 July 2015 - In the first half, Givaudan Group sales for the first six months of the year were CHF 2,184 million, an increase of 1.3% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 0.3% in Swiss francs. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 1,023 million, flat on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 1.1% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 1,161 million, an increase of 2.6% on a like-for-like basis and 0.4% in Swiss francs. Net income for the first six months of 2015 was CHF 339 million compared to CHF 305 million in 2014, an increase of 11.2%. This results in a net profit margin of 15.5% versus 13.9% in 2014.

Firmench - Sharing Innovation - July 2, 2015 - Firmenich announces the launch of the their 2015 collection of Sharing Innovation ingredients.

Huaboa Intl. Full Year 2014-2015 Sales - June 23, 2015 - Huaboa International total sales for the year ending March 31, 2015 was 4,326.5 million Hong Kong dollars (+2.1%) of which ~78.1% was from the flavors & fragrance related segments. The F&F segments sales increase was +6.7% to 3,380.9 million HKD = ~U.S. 436 million.

FEMA Responds to the Center for Public Integrity's Misleading Article on Flavor Safety - June 11, 2015 - On June 9, 2015 the Center for Public Integrity posted an article ( Food flavor safety system a ‘black box’ ) on it's website. These should be reviewed by all in the industry.

Symrise to Acquire Flavor Infusion – June 5, 2015 - Symrise AG is strengthening its product offering for natural beverage ap-plications and further expands into the strongly growing market of fla-vored water: The Company signed an agreement to acquire Flavor Infusion, a highly specialized supplier for natural beverage solutions in North America, from its founders. With this investment, Symrise is gaining immediate access to the company’s profound knowledge as well as already marketed products and its most reputable customer base. California-based Flavor Infusion generates turnover of about US$ 10 million. Symrise will integrate the activities of Flavor Infusion in its US Flavor & Nutrition business immediately after closing, which is expected in the third quarter 2015.

Frutarom 1st Qtr 2015 Sales - Haifa, Israel – May 20, 2015 - Frutarom sales in the 1st Qtr were US$ 194.2 million (+3.0%). 1st Qtr 2015 net profit rose by 17.1% to reach US$ 21.4 million, compared to US$ 18.3 million in the 1st Qtr 2014. Frutarom sales from Flavors activity in Q1 2015 as reported in US dollar terms totaled US$ 133.4 million as opposed to US$ 134.2 million in Q1 2014. Frutarom sales from Specialty Fine Ingredients activity in Q1 2015 as reported in US dollar terms rose 5.5% to reach US$ 43.2 million as opposed to US$ 41.0 million in Q1 2014.

A doctoral defense delayed by injustice - for 77 years - We’ve heard of people taking a long time to get their Ph.D.s, but Ingeborg Syllm-Rapoport surely holds the record. More than 8 decades elapsed between the time she entered graduate school studying diphtheria at the University of Hamburg in Germany and her successful thesis defense.

Takasago Full Year 2014-2015 Sales - May 14, 2015 - Takasago sales increased 0.5% to ¥ 131,653 million from ¥ 131,036 in the prior year ending March 31. Net income decreased 15.7% to ¥ 2,549 million from ¥ 3,025 milllion.

IFF 1st Qtr 2015 Sales - New York - May 12, 2015 - IFF 1st Qtr sales increased $4.7 million, or 0.6%, to $774.9 million from $770.2 million in the prior year quarter. Currency neutral sales (formerly referred to as local currency sales) increased 6% reflecting broad-based growth in both businesses and across all regions. Sales to the emerging markets, which now represent 51% of total company sales, grew 9% on a currency neutral basis. 1st Qtr 2015 Flavor sales were $377.1 million (+2.9%). Currency neutral Flavor sales grew 9% in the first quarter with growth across all regions led by double-digit growth in Latin America and North America and high single-digit growth in EAME. Fragrance sales were $397.8 million (-1.5%). Currency neutral Fragrance sales growth was +5%. IFF's 1st Qtr net income was $128.3 million, +20.2% from 2014.

T. Hasegawa Half Year 2014-2015 Sales Results - May 11, 2015 - for the 1st 6 months ending March 31, 2015, T. Hasegawa reported sales of ¥ 21,879 million compared to ¥ 21,696 million in the prior year period, an increase of 0.8%. Half year net income declined 25.2% to ¥ 1,573 million.

Vibration Theory of Olfaction Takes a Hit - May 8, 2015 - An international team of scientists led by University at Albany Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Eric Block, have demonstrated that the vibrational theory of olfaction, one of the two major theories explaining how the sense of smell functions, is not plausible. In a paper entitled "Implausibility of the vibrational theory of olfaction" (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2015, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1503054112), Block and co-authors found that the human musk-recognizing receptor, OR5AN1, identified using a heterologous OR expression system and robustly responding to cyclopentadecanone (Exaltone®) and muscone, fails to distinguish isotopomers of these compounds in vitro. Furthermore, the mouse (methylthio)methanethiol-recognizing receptor, MOR244-3, as well as other selected human and mouse ORs, responded similarly to normal, deuterated, and 13C isotopomers of their respective ligands, paralleling results with the musk receptor OR5AN1. These findings suggest that Luca Turin's proposed vibration theory does not apply to the human musk receptor OR5AN1, mouse thiol receptor MOR244-3, or other ORs examined. Also, contrary to the vibration theory predictions, muscone-d30 lacks the 1,380- to 1,550-cm-1 IR bands claimed to be essential for musk odor. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the proposed electron transfer mechanism of the vibrational frequencies of odorants could be easily suppressed by quantum effects of nonodorant molecular vibrational modes. These and other concerns about electron transfer at ORs, together with extensive experimental data, argue against the plausibility of the vibration theory. In the May 4th issue of C&EN News Turin responded "...that Block and colleagues did their experiments with cells in a dish rather than within whole organisms. ... and that expressing an olfactory receptor in human embryonic kidney cells doesn’t adequately reconstitute the complex nature of olfaction and is not biologically significant".

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For past News visit our Archives
Flavor & Fragrance Top Companies - 2014 Final Sales Volume Estimates - As of October 7, 2015.

Flavor-Base - 10th Edition - A new version to the world's most extensive database on flavoring materials and food additives.

ESO 2000 (update 2006) - The Complete Database of Essential Oils - More than 4,125 Quantitative Analyses of Essential Oils - for Windows XP, 7, 8, 8.1 (32bit versions only).

Beverage-Master 2011 - With enhanced features for Excel 2007, 2010 & 2013. The world's leading program for beverage development.

Juice-Master 2011 - With enhanced features for Excel 2007, 2010 & 2013. The leading program for development of juice containing beverages.

Study of the Vapor Phase Over Fusarium Fungi Cultured on Various Substrates, Chemistry & Biodiversity, In press - by Elena I. Savelieva, Ludmila K. Gustyleva, Elizaveta D. Migalovskaya, Natalya S. Khlebnikova, John Leffingwell, Olga P. Gavrilova, Tatiana Yu. Gagkaeva

Flavours & fragrances: Recent advances in biotechnology, Speciality Chemicals Magazine, May 2015, pp. 32-35 - by John C. Leffingwell & Diane Leffingwell

Biotechnology - Conquests and Challenges in Flavors & Fragrances, Leffingwell Reports, Vol. 7 (No. 2), 1-11, March 2015 - by John C. Leffingwell & Diane Leffingwell

Identification of the Volatile Constituents of Raw Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) by Dynamic Headspace Analyses, Leffingwell Reports, Vol. 7 (No. 1), 1-14, January 2015 - by John C. Leffingwell, E.D. Alford, Diane Leffingwell

Oxidative Coupling of Aldehydes & Imines I. An Entry to the Synthesis of 6,6,7,7-Tetraalkyl Tropane Alkaloid Analogs, Leffingwell Reports, Vol 6. (No 1), 1-18, June 2014 - by John C. Leffingwell

Wilkinson Sword Cooling Compounds: From the Beginning to Now, Perfumer & Flavorist, Vol. 39, 3 [March Issue], 2014, pp. 34-43 - by John C. Leffingwell & David G. Rowsell

Flavor Properties of FEMA GRAS List 26 flavor chemicals - New 2014

Identification of the Volatile Constituents of Cyprian Latakia Tobacco by Dynamic and Static Headspace Analyses - November 2013 - by John C. Leffingwell, E.D. Alford, Diane Leffingwell & Roger Penn

Aroma Constituents of a Supercritical CO2 Extract of Kentucky Dark Fire-Cured Tobacco - July 2013 - by John C. Leffingwell, E.D. Alford & Diane Leffingwell

Flavor Properties of FEMA GRAS List 25 flavor chemicals - June 2011

Chiral chemistry in flavours & fragrances - March 31, 2011 - a new article by John C. & Diane Leffingwell from the March 2011 issue of Speciality Chemicals Magazine.

Volatile Constituents of the Giant Puffball Mushroom (Calvatia gigantea) - March 26, 2011 - by John C. Leffingwell & E.D. Alford - a new article disclosing the first report of anthranilate esters in a mushroom species.

Cooling Ingredients and Their Mechanism of Action, by John C. Leffingwell in Handbook of Cosmetic Science and Technology, Third edition, André O. Barel, Marc Paye, and Howard I. Maibach, Editors, Pub: Informa Healthcare: New York. Chapter 65, pp. 661-675 (2009) - sign in at Amazon to read the article.

Scents of Precious Woods, an article by John Leffingwell on the odor active enantiomers of the world's most important aromatic woods and modern replacement aroma chemicals.

Chirality & Bioactivity: Pharmacology - an article by John Leffingwell tracing the history & importance of chirality and bioactivity.

ESO 2000 (update 2006) - a major update of ESO - The Complete Database of Essential Oils. The new ESO 2000 (update 2006) has 33% more analyses with 21% more chemical compounds than its earlier version.

PMP 2001 Rated the Top Ranked Olfactory Database - In J. Chem. Inf. Model. 2006, 46, 32-38, Comparing the Information Content of Two Large Olfactory Databases by Marco Pintore, et. al., ..."But more important for the aim of this work, all validation and prediction scores associated with the PMP 2001 data sets were clearly superior to the Arctander ones, with differences ranging between 5 and 20%. Then, these results seem to indicate the information content included in the PMP 2001 database is more trustable and it should be adopted as reference database for deeper studies on more extended olfactory data sets."

I n  t h e  N e w s 
Articles and Information of interest to the Flavorist, Perfumer or those interested in the Chemistry of Natural Botanical properties. 
Special Features on this Site

Visit the BACIS web pages - now on our site (Boelens Aroma Chemical Information Service). Lots of free information.

  Olfaction - A Review

Menthol - A COOL Site:
  Menthol - Background & Organoleptic Properties
  Cool without Menthol & Cooler than Menthol
The Leffingwell Reports
  Odor and Flavor Detection Thresholds
  Search PubMed .... from our site
Phytochemical & Ethnobotanical Database Search... from our site 
  Lycopene - An Ultimate Phytochemical Nutraceutical?
  Carotenoid Precursors of Aroma Constituents
  Boronia - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Saffron - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Rose - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Osmanthus - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Tobacco - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Aldehydes - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  Alkenols: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  Burnt Sugar Notes: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  delta-Lactones - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  Esters - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  gamma-Lactones - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  Pyrazines - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  GC-MS analysis of hardwood smoke flavor.
  GC-MS analysis of Dark Fire-cured Tobacco
Download the Leffingwell Reports as Acrobat Reader (pdf) files
  VCF 2000 - Volatile Compounds in Food. VCF, the world authority on the occurrence of flavour chemicals, contains all data from the publication Volatile Compounds in Food, Qualitative and Quantitative Data, Seventh Edition (including all Supplements and revisions until Autumn 1999), by the TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute in Zeist, The Netherlands. (Co-editor: M.H. Boelens, BACIS, Huizen, The Netherlands.)
The database provides answers to questions such as: What volatile compounds occur in a particular product? In what products does a particular volatile compound occur? What is the range of concentrations of a compound in a particular product? Can a compound be considered a natural constituent of a particular product? What publications (reviews) have appeared with respect to a particular product in recent years?
VCF 2000 contains: 
Chemical Identities and CAS/FEMA-GRAS/CE numbers (if known) of more than 7,100 Flavour Chemicals; 
The Qualitative and Quantitative Occurrence of these Flavour Chemicals in about 450 Food Products; 
More than 4,500 references (including reviews) related to these products; 
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Symrise 1st Qtr 2015 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - May 5, 2015 - Symrise 1st Qtr 2015 group sales increased 42.2% in euros (and 33% in local currencies) to 668 million from 469.6 million in the first 3 months of 2013. Net income for the period increased 31 % to 68.0 million vs 51.9 in 2013. Flavor & Nutrition posted a sales growth of 79.2 % (70 % at local currency) in the first quarter, with sales totaling 385.3 million (Qtr1 2014 = 215.0 million). Scent & Care 1st Qtr sales increased by 11.1 % to 282.8 million (3% in local currencies) vs. 2014 sales of 254.6 million. Dr. Heinz-Jürgen Bertram, CEO of Symrise AG, said: “We had an excellent start into the year. The strong growth across all segments and regions shows that we are ideally positioned with our clear strategy and unique set-up. Diana has more than fulfilled our expectations following its integration. But Symrise also achieved new records in terms of growth and profitability with its existing customer base. Despite uncertainties in individual markets, we remain confident for the coming quarters.”

IFF Completes Acquisition of Ottens Flavors - New York, May 1, 2015 - International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. (NYSE:IFF), a leading global creator of flavors and fragrances for consumer products, today announced that it has successfully completed the previously announced acquisition of Henry H. Ottens Manufacturing Co., Inc. Financial terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

Sensient F&F 1st Qtr 2015 Sales - Milwaukee, April 20, 2015 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported first quarter revenue of $206.0 million compared to the $214.3 million reported in last year’s first quarter (-3.9%). Operating income increased 0.7% to $30.5 million, compared to $30.2 million in the first quarter of 2014. Beginning in the first quarter of 2015, the results of operations for the Company’s businesses in Central and South America, previously reported in the Corporate & Other segment, are now reported in the Flavors & Fragrances segment. Results for 2014 have been restated to reflect these changes. The 2015 and 2014 restructuring and other costs related to continuing operations are reported in the Corporate & Other segment.

IFF to Acquire Ottens Flavors to Strengthen North American Business - New York, April 13, 2015 - International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. announced that it has entered into an agreement to acquire Henry H. Ottens Manufacturing Co., Inc. “This acquisition is an exciting one as it’s the first step in our redefined strategy to win where we compete,” said IFF Chairman and CEO Andreas Fibig". "Once completed, the deal will strengthen our operations in North America and enhance our ability to meet the needs of our customers through a differentiated service model geared towards enhancing collaboration and building greater customer intimacy. We’re looking forward to welcoming Ottens Flavors’ employees into the IFF family.” The transaction, which will be funded from existing resources, is expected to add approximately $60 million in revenue on an annualized basis and be slightly accretive to IFF’s earnings per share in 2015, excluding transaction costs. Financial terms of the deal have not been disclosed.

Givaudan 1st Qtr 2015 Sales - Geneva, 10 Apr 2015 - In the first three months of 2015, Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 1,091 million, an increase of 0.9% on a like-for-like basis, and 0.4% in Swiss francs compared to the previous year. The Fragrance Division recorded sales of CHF 519 million, a growth of 0.3% on a like-for-like basis and an increase of 0.7% in Swiss francs. Including Soliance, the growth was 2.0% in local currencies. The sales of Soliance, which was acquired on 2 June 2014, amounted to CHF 8 million for the first three months of 2015, a double-digit growth when compared to the same period of last year. The Flavour Division reported sales of CHF 572 million, a growth of 1.5% on a like-for-like basis and a slight increase of 0.1% in Swiss francs.

Food for fuel: Biofuels policies cut emissions by cutting food consumption- April 9, 2015 - Biofuels policies rely on cutting food consumption in order to reduce emissions, according to a study published in the journal Science.

Firmenich Appoints New Chief Research Officer - Geneva, Switzerland, March 24, 2015 – Firmenich appoints Professor Geneviève Berger as Chief Research Officer, effective July 1st 2015. She will report directly into the Group CEO, Gilbert Ghostine, as a member of his executive team, after most recently serving as Chief Research and Development Officer at Unilever. Professor Berger will be based in Geneva, Switzerland and succeed to Dr. Toni Gautier, who is retiring from the Group at the end of June.

Frutarom Full Year 2014 Sales - Haifa, Israel – March 16, 2015 - Frutarom sales for the full year 2014 increased 21.6% to U.S. $819.5 million. Net income for the year increased 37.7% to $87.6 million. Flavors and Specialty Fine Ingredients sales grew to $741.0 million (+16.9%).

T. Hasegawa 1st Qtr 2014-2015 Sales Results - for the 3 months ending December 31, 2014 T. Hasegawa's consolidated net sales were down -3.5% to ¥ 10,430 million compared to ¥ 10,806 in the prior year. Net income for the period declined 34.8% to ¥ 552 million.

Symrise Full Year 2014 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - March 10, 2015 - In the fiscal year 2014, Symrise AG exceeded its targets and substantially expanded its market position. Group sales increased 15.8% to 2120.1 million from 1830.4 million in 2013. In local currencies, sales increased 18.3%. 4th Qtr performance was particularly strong, with an increase in Group sales to 590.1 million vs. 2013 at 429.2 million (+37.5%). Net income normalized for one-time effects was up 23 % to 211.6 million. Full year Scent & Care sales were 980.4 million vs. 960.4 million in 2013 (+2.1%). Full year Flavor & Nutrition sales increased 31% to 1139.7 million vs. 869.9 million in 2013. This includes 233.9 million contributed from the Diana Group acquisition since July 2014.

Robertet Full Year 2014 Sales - 3 March 2015 - Robertet has reported 12 month revenues of 390.1 million euros (+0.2% from 2013).

Takasago 9 Month 2014-2015 Sales - February 12, 2015 - Takasago's 9 Month sales for the period ending December 31 were ¥ 99,085 million (-0.3%). Net income for the 9 month period declined 3.6 % to ¥ 3,256 million.

IFF Full Year 2014 Sales - New York - February 12, 2015 - Reported net sales for the 2014 full year were $3,088.5 million, up +4.6% from 2013. For the full year, Flavor sales were up +2.4% to $1,457.1 million, while Fragrance sales increased to $1,631.5 million (+6.6%). In the 4th Qtr., IFF net sales increased +4.3% to $756.1 million vs 2013. 4th Qtr. Flavor sales were $356.3 million (+3.9%) while Fragrance sales were $399.8 million (+4.6%). IFF's 2014 net income was $414.5 million, +17.3% from 2013.

Sensient F&F Full Year 2014 Sales - Milwaukee, Feb. 5, 2015 - Sensient's Flavors & Fragrances Group reported full year revenue of $847.0 million and $876.5 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively (-3.4%). Operating income was $119.1 million for the year compared to $120.3 million last year. Foreign currency translation reduced both revenue and operating income by approximately one percent in 2014. In local currency, revenue was off about 1%, and operating income was comparable to 2013. 4th quarter revenue was $201.9 million compared to the $209.0 million in 2013 (-3.4%).

Mane - Full Year 2014 Sales increase - February 4, 2015 - Mane achieved sales of 769 million in 2014, up 6.4% from 723 million in 2013. Using the 2014 yearly average EUR/USD Forex exchange rate, 2014 sales in USD were $ 1,022 million (personal communication).

Carl Djerassi (1923-2015)

Dr. Carl Djerassi, renowned scientist, author, and philanthropist, died peacefully, surrounded by family and loved ones, in his home in San Francisco, California on Friday, January 30, 2015. He was 91. His life and career included remarkable productivity and achievement in science, academia, and the arts, as well as personal tragedy in his expulsion from his childhood home following the Nazi Anschluss in 1938.Best known as one of the inventors who patented the key ingredient that led to the development of the oral contraceptive in 1951, he was also instrumental in creating the first commercial antihistamines in the 1940s. He was the author of more than 1,200 scientific articles.Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Djerassi continued to do significant scientific work, as a professor in the Department of Chemistry at Stanford University, and as an entrepreneur. He pioneered novel physical research techniques for mass spectrometry and optical rotatory dispersion and applied them to the areas of organic chemistry and the life sciences.

Givaudan Full Year 2014 Sales - Geneva, 29 January 2015 – For the full year 2014 Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 4,404 million, an increase of 3.7% on a like-for-like basis and 0.8% in Swiss francs when compared to 2013. Net income was CHF 563 million, up 14.9% year on year. Developing markets grew 7.0%, and mature markets grew 1.1%, both on a like-for-like basis. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 2,108 million, an increase of 3.6% on a like-for-like basis and 1.2% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 2,296 million, an increase of 3.7% on a like-for-like basis and 0.4% in Swiss francs.

In Memoriam of E. Demp Alford - January 8, 2015 - On January 7th, 2015 Demp Alford passed away at the age of 74 in Louisville KY. A career mass spectroscopist and President of Alford Consulting for the last 20 years, he was well known to those in the flavor & fragrance industry for his unique ability to unravel the most difficult GC-MS analyses. His consulting clients included many well-known companies in the USA, Japan, India and Europe. He was often sought after to assist companies in improving their own GC-MS laboratory techniques.

His generosity in assisting others is exemplified by a note I received from someone he assisted in setting up to be a competitor. "My [GC-MS] consulting business is doing really good and I am so grateful for the opportunity Demp gave me. I think he believed in me before I believed in myself...".

He was an avid gardener, feeding many friends, neighbors and people in need every year. He was known for his strong work ethic, sharp mind and a wonderful sense of humor. He is survived by his wife Donna, his daughter Nikola and three brothers.

The 2016 British Society of Flavourists Table Talk exhibition for flavour ingredients will be held in the NH Amsterdam Schiphol Airport Hotel on the 3rd of March, 2016

Visit our Floriculture Site

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Flavour Horizon's presents - Flavour Talk Singapore 2016, April 26-27, 2016

Chirality & Odour Perception - Updated January 7, 2016 (now with over 1,420 enantiomers)

The FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library - September 23, 2015 - FEMA has officially launched its online Flavor Ingredient Library, a free and easily accessible resource for researchers, the media and consumers seeking information on substances that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use as flavor ingredients. All the FEMA GRAS lists are available for FREE.

Cool without Menthol & Cooler than Menthol and Cooling Compounds as Insect Repellents - Updated September 23, 2015

FEMA Interim GRAS List 28 - November 14 2015 - FEMA has released the latest interim GRAS list which includes six new additions. FEMA No. 4819 is Erythritol, a common food additive often used as a flavor enhancer, processing aid, carrier and as a low calorie sweetener additive.


FEMA 4820 is Purified Damar Gum, useful as a clouding / weighting agent for beverages. Nexira markets purified damar gum under the brand name DAMAR-EZ.

FEMA 4822 is 2,6-Dipropyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-thiopyran-3-carboxaldehyde = 2,6-Dipropyl-3-formyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-thiopyran which has recently been reported in Ciflorette strawberries by R. Cannon et al. at IFF - "In-depth analysis of Ciflorette strawberries (Fragaria× ananassa ‘Ciflorette’) by multidimensional gas chromatography and gas chromatography-olfactometry." Flavour Fragr. J., 30, 302–319 (2015). This material possesses a green, mango, tropical aroma.


FEMA 4824 is 2-(5-Isopropyl-2-methyl-tetrahydro-thiophen-2-yl)-ethyl acetate. This is an IFF material described as having tropical, strawberry and green pepper organoleptic notes. See WIPO WO 2015/157153 entitled Novel organoleptic compounds and their use in flavor and fragrance compositions, by David O. Agyemang et al. dated 15 October 2015, assigned to IFF. See also, Cannon, Robert J., et al. "Identification, Synthesis, and Characterization of Novel Sulfur-Containing Volatile Compounds from the In-Depth Analysis of Lisbon Lemon Peels (Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cv. Lisbon)." Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 63, 7 (2015): 1915-1931. This latter publication indicates for Orthonasal and Retronasal Evaluations: Orthonasal - citrus like, sulfury; Retronasal - @ 10 ppm - green, cooked strawberries, tropical.


FEMA 4825 is (E)-6-Nonenal = trans -6-Nonenal which has been reported as a "linolenic hardening flavour and melon like" in dilution (Mans H. Boelens & Leo J. van Gemert, Organoleptic Properties of Aliphatic Aldehydes, Perfumer & Flavorist, Vol. 12, October/November 1987 p. 31-43).


FEMA 4829 is 2-Pyrrolidone with a faint and amine-like odor which finds use in a wide variety of products.


Updated EU Flavoring Regulations - as of April 2015

Japanese Flavoring Agents as Food Additives - as of April 2015

New - China Flavor Regulations - On 24 December 2014, The National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China (NHFPC) announced that the China National Standards for Food Additives (GB 2760-2014), which includes the latest list of flavoring ingredients, would go into effect on May 24, 2015. This regulation contains a more complete (and updated) list of flavor ingredients than the flavoring regulation GB 29938-2013,which defines the purity standards for flavor chemicals, that took effect June 1, 2014.

A Green and Sustainable Approach: Celebrating the 30th Anniversary of the Asymmetric l-Menthol Process - November 2014 - Takasago has been devoted to producing l-menthol since 1954, and our long history of manufacturing this important aroma chemical is reviewed here. The current asymmetric catalytic process had its 30th anniversary in 2013. Our l-menthol process is considered carbon-neutral, and, therefore, ‘green’ and sustainable. It uses renewable myrcene obtained from gum rosin as a starting material. In addition, the Rh-BINAP (=2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl) catalytic system is highly efficient. This pathway not only leads l-menthol, but a variety of 100% biobased aroma chemical products as well. By measuring the 14C levels in a material, one can determine the percentage of carbon that is biobased. This biobased assay, described as the ratio plant-derived C/fossil-derived C, can clarify how renewable a product really is. This will be highlighted for several of Takasago's key aroma chemicals.

FEMA GRAS List 27 - July 7, 2015 - The GRAS 27 list is now available. The list of substances, accompanying use level tables and supplementary information are part of the 27th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment. The GRAS 27 publication will appear in the August issue of Food Technology.

FEMA - Safety Assessment and Regulatory Authority to Use Flavors: Focus on E-Cigarettes

FEMA - The FEMA GRAS™ Status of Flavors – Focus on Biotechnology and Other New Methods of Production - Discusses the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the production of flavoring substances.

IOFI Global (Flavourings) Reference List (GRL) - Released December 2014 - contains all FEMA, EU Flavis and JECFA materials.

IOFI Natural Complex (Flavourings) Substances (GRL) - Released February 2013 - contains all FEMA, FDA and COE materials.

Natural flavours ‘identified in nature’ to have major industry impact - report - January 2, 2012

Aspects of Oral Perception

Flavor Properties of GRAS List 25 flavor chemicals


Chemistry and the Sense of Smell - This book by Charles Sell provides an account of the totality of fragrance chemistry in one volume. It describes the chemistry of odorous materials, how and why they are produced in nature, how they are produced and used commercially, how they are analyzed and characterized, the chemistry of how we perceive them, and their role in our everyday lives. The final chapter reviews the major intellectual challenges for fragrance chemists and considers the future of the field.


Scent and Chemistry - This book is the long awaited completely revised and extended edition of Günther Ohloff's standard work "Scent and Fragrances: The Fascination of Odors and Their Chemical Perspectives". The prominent chemists Günther Ohloff, Wilhelm Pickenhagen, and Philip Kraft convey the scientist, the perfumer, as well as the interested layman with a vivid and up-to-date picture of the state of the art of the chemistry of odorants and the research in odor perception. The book details on the molecular basis of olfaction, olfactory characterization of perfumery materials, structure-odor relationships, the chemical synthesis of odorants, and the chemistry of essential oils and odorants from the animal kingdom, backed up by ca. 400 perfumery examples and historical aspects.


The Chemistry and Biology of Volatiles (August 2010) - A Fascinating book edited by Andreas Herrmann of Firmenich. Volatile compounds are molecules with a relatively low molecular weight allowing for an efficient evaporation into the air. They are found in many areas of our everyday-life: they are responsible for the communication between species such as plants, insects or mammals; they serve as flavours or fragrances in many food products or perfumed consumer articles.

Firmenich's New Enantioselective Synthesis of (-)-beta-Santalol


Charles Fehr and co-workers at Firmenich have designed the "right cat for the desired odor". In WIPO Patent Application WO/2009/141781 (November 26, 2009), they disclose a novel, and seemingly practical, approach to the synthesis of beta-Santalol (the Golden Grail of Sandalwood odor). See also - Charles Fehr, Iris Magpantay, Jeremy Arpagaus, Xavier Marquet, Magali Vuagnoux, Enantioselective Synthesis of (-)-beta-Santalol by a Copper-Catalyzed Enynol Cyclization-Fragmentation Reaction, Angewandte Chemie, Volume 121, Issue 39, Date: September 14, 2009, Pages: 7357-7359

PMP 2001
Database of Perfumery Materials & Performance
Chemical Identities, Odour Descriptions, Performance, Application and references to RIFM monographs (where possible) of more than 4,100 perfumery materials; Stability Records of all materials in 21 endproducts and in water pH 1 - 12; More than 3,200 Commercial Names and Synonyms with suppliers; The possibility to search on Chemical Identity, CAS number, Odour Description and Stability. 

FRM 2001 - The Complete Database of Flavour (Raw) Materials
Chemical identities, Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers (CAS), FEMA-GRAS Substance numbers and Council of Europe numbers of more than 5,500 Flavour Materials; among these are all GRAS lists materials and more than 1,400 materials from natural sources; More than 550 suppliers for these materials, with addresses, telephone and fax numbers; An indication of the Occurrence, Flavour and Application of each material; One or two references of the most recent literature on more than 4,500 materials. 

The Musk & Fragrance Controversy - download the Draft for public hearing from the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation entitled Fragrances 2000

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From Oliemans Punter & Partners
"Odour and Flavour threshold values in air, water and other media" by L.J. van Gemert. Available now: an impressive collection of odour & flavour threshold values starting from the early days of olfactory research, including literature references, compiled by L.J. van Gemert, formerly of TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, Zeist, The Netherlands.

Visit Perfumer's World and download the Perfumer's Workbook (free) to see the future of computing in formulation creativity.

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